- Make sure that the object is in contact with the ruler.
- Avoid parallax error.
- Avoid zero error and end error.
There are 2 types of mercury thermometer
- Thermometers of range -10oC - 110oC with accuracy 1oC.
- Thermometers of range 0oC - 360oC with accuracy 2oC.
- Make sure that the temperature measured does not exceed the measuring range.
- When measuring temperature of liquid
- immerse the bulb fully in the liquid
- stir the liquid so that the temperature in the liquid is uniform
- do not stir the liquid vigorously to avoid breaking the thermometer
There are 2 types of stopwatches
- analogue stopwatches of sensitivity 0.1s or 0.2s
- digital stopwatches of sensitivity 0.01s.
Ammeter and Voltmeter
Ammeters are measuring instrument used to measure electric current.
An Ammeter is always connected in series with the load (resistor) in a circuit.
Voltmeters are measuring instrument used to measure potential difference (voltage).
A voltmeter is always connected parallel to the load (resistor) in a circuit.